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Onions

Onions are one of the most widely used vegetables, and are one of oldest vegetable we know.

In addition to the regular yellow onion, there are, among others:

  • Red onion
  • Shallots
  • Scallions

Why eat and grow onions.

The onions are very healthy and they contain many beneficial nutrients, vitamins, minerals.The onions also add flavor to the cooking, without significantly increasing the calorie content.

Cooking and use.

Onions are one of the most important basic ingredient in the kitchen. Crisp and crispy in raw form, soft and to the sweet side cooked.

You can use in all kitchen combinations. From soup to compote, such as sprinkles, flavorings and pure strength. Especially the yellow onions provide good sweetness in soups, stews and gravy.

Some recipes

Cultivation of onions

There are two ways to grow onions. You can then sow onions from seeds or you can buy onion sets.

I would recommend that you buy onion sets, it is both faster and easier and you get earlier onions than sowing.

If you want your onions then the best way to grow from seedlings is to put them in boxes in the greenhouse or indoor as early as February and then plant them from the beginning of May.

You grow all onions in the same simple way. They are set at 8-10 cm intervals with 25 cm spacing between the rows. You only use solid and good onions.

You set the onions in early spring as soon as the soil is comfortable and the worst winter is over. You should put them with the top end in the soil surface because they have more difficulty growing if the soil is hard and they stand deep.

Onions can be grown on all kinds of soils, but thrive best in full sun. They are not very demanding in terms of fertilizer. If the soil has been good with compost the year before, you do not need to fertilize. In contrast, onions prefer to grow in a soil with a high pH, ​​so adding a little lime or pure ash can be beneficial.

Onions do not tolerate competition from weeds, so you must keep the onion bed completely free of weeds until July.

Since onions only have a root depth of 20-30 cm, it is important that the soil does not dry out and that the nutrients are available in the upper 20 cm. They must have water during the growing season, so the soil must never be dry. If it starts with a drought period in May and June, it may be necessary to water the onions.

Seed change: There must be at least 4 years between growing onions in the same area.

Harvest and drying

You harvest the onions up when the onion shaft begins to soften. Picking up and drying at this point produces more durable onions. You make them dry by hanging in a dry and airy place with the top on, possibly.

When dry, the top may are removed and they can hang nicely in the outhouse and carport, even in freezing weather.

Potatoes

The potato comes from the Andes in South America Around the year 1700 the potato come to Europe, but it took many years before it began to be cultivated seriously. Today it is one of the most important vegetable, and there is hardly any kitchen garden without potatoes.

Why eat and grow potatoes.

Some believe that the potato is unhealthy due to its carbohydrate content. Nevertheless, the potato is not that bad.

On the contrary, it is an incredibly healthy eating, also for everyday life, because it is full of many good nutrients, vitamins and minerals.

  • The potatoes are rich in dietary fiber and are therefore a good source for getting the recommended 25 grams into the daily diet.
  • They have a low calorie content, and contain fewer calories than the alternatives we otherwise put on the table, such as rice and pasta.
  • Due to the high content of fiber, the potatoes have also proved to be the most saturating in several meal attempts, and thus for the fewest calories.
  • In addition, potatoes do not contain fat, and they will therefore most often help to pull the meal down in a more calorie and light direction.
  • Potatoes contain a large amount of vitamin C, in fact a fifth of the recommended daily dose, obtained by consuming only one medium-sized potato. Vitamin C, among other things, helps strengthen our immune system and increase the absorption of iron in, among other things, the meat we eat.
  • In addition to vitamin C, the potato also stores vitamin B and K, folate, copper, phosphorus, iron, zinc, potassium, magnesium and calcium, all of which play a major and important role in our health.

Cooking and use.

There are thousands of different ways to prepare potatoes. You can eat them baked, fried, steamed and boiled.

You can boil new potatoes after cleaning, older ones you have to scrape or peel before use.

Some recipes

Cultivation of potatoes.

Potatoes and seed change.

The cultivation itself is very easy, and here you get both yield and quality for a little effort. There is a wide difference in taste between purchased and new home grown potatoes , that you just harvested.

In order to prevent disease and pests it is necessary to have a seed change – this applies not least to potatoes, cabbage and peas. Seed change means switching crops on the different beds or pieces of soil, and each family must arrange its seed change to suit the consumption of vegetables. A simple change of seeds over 4 years is:

First year: potatoes
Second year: cabbage / beans / peas
Third year: cucumbers
Fourth year: root vegetables / onions.

If you want to grow large potatoes in the kitchen garden year after year, you can only grow potatoes in a maximum of a quarter of the kitchen garden every year.

New potatoes

Potatoes can be grown on all kinds of soil, especially if you add copious amounts of compost to the soil, which makes the clay soil more crumbly and increases the sandy soil’s ability to hold on to the water.

Potatoes are a corrosive vegetable, so there must be plenty of nitrogen and potassium available. Fertilize the soil well, either with compost or livestock manure, or with various dried bag fertilizers. Quantity: approx. 2 l of fully processed compost per m². Unlike most other vegetables, potatoes can tolerate fresh manure. You can mix it into the top 10 cm of soil in the spring.

Early potatoes are spaced 30 cm apart and 40 cm between rows. Late potatoes are spaced 35 cm and between 50 and 60 cm between rows. If you put three rows of late potatoes on a 120 cm bed, you get many small potatoes, while two rows yield somewhat larger potatoes. The yield is approx. the same.

Until the potatoes cover the soil, you keep weeds down by raising the soil in a violence around the potato plants. This also prevents the potatoes getting light and turning green. Another method, possibly combined with 1-2 hips, is a thick layer of soil cover with semi-composted compost. From the ground cover is applied to the potatoes being picked up, there is no work – seed weed simply cannot germinate.

With ground cover, it will usually not be necessary to water. However, if the soil is not well moist at the time when the potatoes are the size of hazelnuts, then it may be worth giving the potatoes 20-30 mm of water – it can mean many extra kilos of potatoes.

Harvest and storage

 

Potatoes are picked up on a lovely sunny day in late August, put to dry in the sun and packed in boxes / sacks that are kept dark, cool and frost-free. It is important to keep the temperature above 4-5 degrees Celsius, otherwise the starch will turn into sugar and the potatoes will taste sweet.

Important!

The potatoes must not turn green. If potatoes are exposed to light, they turn green and form the toxin solanine. If they have turned green, it is necessary to throw out the whole potato and not simply cut the green away.

Mold attack

Best remedy for mold is to put good sprouted potatoes as soon as the soil is convenient and warm enough. They can then develop to a maximum before any event. Mold attack sets in after mid-July. Be sure there are minimum of 8 cm of soil above the roots can prevent the rain from washing mold traces down to the roots.

If mold attacks come, there is only one thing to do: remove the top so the spores do not reach down and attack the roots. Put one foot on each side of the top and pull the top up – removing the stems as well. The potatoes should stay in the soil until August and ripen off.

Flower of potato

Cabbage

Cabbage is actually the oldest known vegetable and has been on the menu since ancient times.

There are many types of cabbage including:

  • White cabbage. Large, light green head with glossy, powerful leaves. The juicy leaves are crunchy crispy and the cabbage taste mild and sweet.
  • Red cabbage. Large, dark purple cabbage head with glossy, powerful leaves. The cabbage taste is more strong and bitter than cabbage.
  • Dense bushy cabbage in flower shape with luminous, white color. A crispy cabbage with a mild and nutty flavor.
  • Chinese cabbage. Elongated light green cabbage head with lettuce-like leaves. The cabbage taste is mild with a pleasant bitterness.
  • Savoy cabbage. A round dark green cabbage with rippled leaves. The leaves are glossy and have a nice texture. The cabbage taste is medium to strong.
  • Bushy cabbage in flower shape with strong dark green color. The taste is mild and rounded.
  • Brussel sprouts. Small pale green cabbage heads from the plant cane. The cabbage taste becomes milder when cooking.
  • Oblong, dark green leaves from the plant cane. The rippled, strong leaves have a strong cabbage taste.

Why eat and grow cabbage.

Cabbage is healthy. Cabbage contains many important nutrients, such as prevents cardiovascular disease, strengthens the immune system, reduces the risk of diabetes, provides effective protection against cancer and keeps the gut moving. It is also rich in vitamins, fiber and other minerals. Fiber saturates well and makes it easier to hold the weight

You can prepare in countless ways. However, if you want the most health out of the cabbage, eat it raw or lightly steamed. Vigorous preparation can go beyond the content of healthy cabbage nutrients.

Cooking and use.

You can use cabbage in salads, soups and various cooked dishes. It can be boiled, steamed, sautéed, fried, pureed and marinated.

Some recipes

Cultivation of  cabbage.

Cabbage and seed change.

In order to prevent disease and pests it is necessary to have a seed change – this applies not least to cabbage, potatoes and peas. Seed change means switching crops on the different beds or pieces of soil, and each family must arrange its seed change to suit the consumption of vegetables. A simple change of seeds over 4 years is:

First year: cabbage
Second year: potatoes
Third year: cucumbers
Fourth year: root vegetables / onions.

You can easily grow your own cabbage, and contrary to what many believe, it is not at all difficult to make the cabbage grow in your kitchen garden. Just remember to give the cabbage plants plenty of fertilizer and plant them somewhere in the garden where they get plenty of sunshine.

Moreover, if you buy the cabbage as small plants instead of seeds, it make growing your cabbage easier.

The large cabbage species of cabbage, red cabbage, savoy cabbage, Brussels sprouts and cauliflower require space and a good nutritious soil.

The planting distance for red cabbage, white cabbage, Brussels sprouts and cauliflower should be 50-60 cm between the plants both in and between the rows. It is advantageous to displace the plant in the rows. This gives the individual plant the largest root volume and the plants cover the soil better, so that weeds are shaded away when the rows close.

Harvest and storage

Most cabbage species are harvested in the fall and winter. Follow these tips:

  • The harvest should as far as possible be made under dry conditions. There must not be water on the cabbages when harvest.
  • Do not cut the cabbage heads if they are frozen.
  • One must make sure to use clean knives.
  • You should harvest your cabbage before it gets too much frost, so as not to impair durability.

Storage is best done by harvest directly in large boxes, and stored at a temperature of 0-50 Celsius in a ventilated room.

Peas

Green peas are one of the best plant-based sources of protein, which is a major reason why they are so filling, along with their high amount of fiber.

There is different varieties of peas

  1. Marv Peas
    Marv Peas are the most common in the gardens. There is a variety of varieties with heights ranging from 40-50 cm and up to a few meters. The low and medium highs are the easiest to pick.
  2. Sugar peas
    Sugar peas do not have the cool impediments in the pods and you can eat them whole. You have to harvest while the pods are still flat and brittle. The varieties range from 40 to 75 cm high.

Why eat and grow 

Peas calorie content is low and come carbs and protein. Furthermore, peas contain just about every vitamin and mineral you need, in addition to a significant amount of fiber.

As with other legumes, peas will fix nitrogen in the soil, making it more available for other plants. In return, they require little extra fertility to grow and produce pods. This makes them a great companion plant, too.

Cooking and use.

Usually you eat pea’s fresh, but if you harvest many you can freeze them down. I like them as topping on different dishes. They taste great with carrots, cauliflower and beans

Cultivation of Peas

Remember that pea plants that have limited growing season.

The key to growing peas is to plant them early enough in spring so they mature while the weather is still cool. A second round of peas can be planted in the late summer or early fall.

Select a sunny location. While peas can grow in part shade, they will not be as sweet or productive as those grown in fully sun.

Soil must drain well. One of the few downfalls of growing peas is seed rot. Add compost to the planting site.

You put the seeds in 5-6 cm deep grooves in the soil, 5-8 cm apart. For the sake of later binding, it is a good idea to sow in double rows with a distance of 10-20 cm. You should sow the next double row about 50 cm away from the previous one, so you can come in and pick the peas.

The birds - especially the pigeons - love the freshly sown seeds and the newly sprouted peas. Therefore, cover the pea with branches or wire mesh until the plants are about 10 cm high.

Water sparsely unless the plants are wilting. If the weather is dry, water them periodically. Do not let plants dry out, or no pods will be produced.

Binding

Once germinated, peas will climb a fence or trellis to anywhere between 60 cm and 250 cm tall, depending on the sort.

The simplest form of binding is to prune twigs from pruning trees and shrubs into the soil on both sides of the double row. It is sufficient for peas with a height of 60-70 cm. A neat braid of bamboo, hazel or willow sticks between the double rows can make the pea bed a very decorative feature in the kitchen garden.

On the other hand, you can stick sticks in the ground at the end of the rows of peas and pull threads, cords or wire mesh between them and between the double rows. It also provides stable attachment for the meter-high varieties of peas.

Beans

The green beans are originally from Central and South America. Green beans are immature, fresh pods of seeds. They also called haricot hosts, which are termed new beans

Why eat and grow beans

Beans are healthy and nutritious, and the beans contain lots of good vitamins and nutrients. Among other things, you can find the following nutrients in beans:

  • The vitamins: A, B, C, E and K.
  • The minerals: magnesium, iron, potassium, selenium, zinc and lime.

They also have a high dietary fiber and protein content.

Cooking and use

You can use the beans for almost any cold or hot dishes.

You should not eat beans raw because they contain lectin, which can cause stomach pain, vomiting and diarrhea. When the beans are heated, this substance becomes harmless - so give them a quick boil, or warm them in another way before serving.

If the beans are dry in the pods (like seeds), they should be soaked and cooked. It is due to the content of the toxic protein lectin, which can induce vomiting, diarrhea and in severe cases abdominal cramps and bleeding. In addition to soaking dry beans, it reduces cooking time; it also reduces their unfortunate ability to give some air to the stomach.

Fresh beans should not be soaked before they can be cooked and eaten. How long to cook depends on how mature, they have become. Some beans should be cooked 15-30 minutes, depending on maturity and how cooked you want them.

Fresh (green) beans such as haricots verts only small amounts of lectins and only need to cook in 5-10 minutes depending on the size.

Cultivation of beans

There are two main types of beans:

  • Bush beans which grow to about 50 cm in height
  • Pole beans (the tall, climbing ones).

Pole beans must be tied up on an espalier or around cut branches. The height must be 2 meters or higher.

You will then need your beans to a depth of approx. 5 cm with a distance of 15 cm and 50 cm between each row. Water well in the groove before sowing, but never during germination as the seeds can rot.

You must sow your beans in warm soil or they will germinate poorly, or not at all. In addition, beans do not tolerate night frost both spring and fall. You just have to wait until the soil temperature is higher than approx. 14 ° C. The soil temperature must be 14 ° C all day. Therefore, if you want to make sure the beans are sprouting well, you should wait to sow them until it is summer.

You can also sow your beans in pots in the greenhouse and plant them out in the first half of June. Then you have strong plants from the start and avoid any holes in the row that may come if some bean seeds do not germinate.

Beans do not need a well-fertilized soil, as it is a nitrogen fixing plant. Beans appreciate a loose mound of soil and they quickly cover the soil.  Once the beans have received the first leaves, you can add a layer of ground cover.

You only need to remove weeds between the rows 1-2 times enough. After that, the bean plants pretty much fit themselves.

Beans cannot tolerate lack of water and they you must water before they start hanging with the leaves. In a normal summer, it is only necessary to water the beans during periods of drought.

Harvest and storage

Depending on what kind of beans you have planted - and weather conditions - you can harvest them after 50-70 days.

You can harvest beans in three stages of development:

  • Pods: Pick pods before seeds are developed. Although the pods can also be purple, yellow and green with red streak, they all called 'green beans'. If you have planted the common, green garden bean and want to get the thin haricots vert beans, just harvest them before they get too thick. The more you pick, the more new beans come.
  • Unripe seeds: You can also use the immature seeds in the big thick beans that you did not get harvested in time.
  • Mature and dry bean seeds: Make them dry on the ground as long as possible. Otherwise, you hung them up for post-drying after harvest.
    If you cannot make them dry, you can harvest and use them as fresh beans. You can freeze without blanching.

Storage of dry beans

You bellow the seeds when dry. Dried beans can be stored in paper bags in a cool room for several years. If enough space is available, the plants with the dry pods can be put away for later use in a dry place.

Carrots

The carrot derived from Afghanistan. Earlier the most popular carrots was the purple, white or red. Now the most popular variety is the orange.

Carrot is a swollen peel root. It contains about 8% sugars, which give it a mild and slightly sweet taste. The yellow color is due to the substance carotene,which is converted into vitamin A in the body. There are various varieties, of which some (carrots) are small and almost spherical.

Why eat and grow carrots.

Carrot is one of the most versatile vegetables found. Solid, crispy, super healthy, and then a carrot tastes great in everything from soup to juice, raw food and cake.

Carrot are rich in both potassium, iodine and dietary fiber, which promote digestion, regulate your blood sugar and prevent cardiovascular disease.

If you eat 2-4 carrot daily, it can help against bowel cancer. Carrot contains substances that can reduce tumors by 80%, shows experiments with rats.

Carrots are rich in beta-carotene, enhancing your eyes.

Carrots vary greatly in size and thus also in weight. A small carrot can weigh 45 grams, a medium-sized approx. weighs 65 grams and a large one can weigh up to 145 grams. There are only 25 calories in a medium-sized carrot.

How to keep.

New carrots are available in summer and autumm. Stored they are available all year.

Keep your carrots in cool environments, so either store them in refrigerators in a cool room. In addition, if you place the carrots in a plastic bag with holes in it, you can increase the shelf life of the carrots so that condensation can escape. Carrots can stay 2-3 weeks in the refrigerator. Maximize the carrots crispness by sipping the top off before placing the carrots in the refrigerator. Revitalize carrots that have lost their brittleness by putting them in a bowl of cold water.

Cooking and use.

New scrubs, older ones scraped or peeled. Loss: about 15%.

If the roots are small and new, tyou can eat them directly, or cut into bars (if they are little older).

But they can also be switched, baked, fried, steamed and cooked – and they spice up everything from exotic food to European classics. Due to the juiciness and sweetness of the carrots, they are also wonderful to put in both buns and cakes.

Freezing: Cut into cubes or slices and blanched for approximate 2 minutes. They lose the brittleness after thawing.

Some recipes.

Cultivation of carrots

  • Planting distance: 5 cm.
  • Row spacing: So wide that you can remove weeds between rows
  • Depth: 1-2 cm.
  • Sowing time: Spring

Four tips when you grow carrots

  1. Thin out your carrots
    It can be difficult to sow carrots at 15cm intervals. Alternatively, sprinkle the small seeds into the row and thaw as they germinate.
  1. Remove weeds around your carrots
    Of course, you can only hatch when the small green peaks are big enough.
    However, then it is important to hatch, so that the weeds do not take the nourishment.3. Saw carrots early in the season
  1. Saw carrots early in the season
    The carrot fly is malicious. Its larvae gnaw itself into the carrot and make ugly rings around your otherwise lovely carrots. You can avoid it by first doing so early in the season.
  1. Move your carrots every year
    Also, make sure you first sow carrots in the same place four years after. Then you avoid the carrot fly larvae in the ground next year.

Leeks

Leeks are originally from the Mediterranean countries. From here the Romans spread it to Europe. Today it grow most on our latitudes.

Why eat and grow leeks

Leeks is healthy because of their content of important nutrients, vitamins and minerals. Leeks have a high content of dietary fiber, which ensures a long-lasting feeling of satiety and strengthens your digestion.

The leeks also have a high content of potassium, which helps regulate fluid balance and at the same time counteracts accumulated fluid in the body. At least it strengthens the immune system, and can help lower your blood pressure.

Leeks are one of the vegetables that it really pays to grow and it is nice to harvest one or two perfectly healthy leeks most of the year.

If you want fresh leeks all winter, choose varieties that can withstand frost and winter’s changeable weather. I would suggest that you choose:

  • An autumn variety that provides a high yield of early, long-handled leeks of fine quality
  • A winter variety – they are fairly short-shaven and slightly more coarse, but provide a safe yield of fresh leeks throughout the winter.

Cooking and use

There are thousands of different ways to prepare leeks. You can eat them raw, baked, fried, steamed and boiled. The white part is the mildest in taste, but the green is richest in vitamins and minerals. 

Always remember to clean leeks thoroughly.

Some recipes

How to cultivate

Leeks is easy to grow as it can grow in any area and in different soil types. However, it is important that the soil is free of stones and weeds. You can harvest leeks from the end of July

Leeks do not require as much care. However, it is important that you keep the weeds away from the plants, as it steal the nourishment. Initially you can keep the weeds away by turning the soil, later you apply a layer of cut grass or, plant ground cover to keep the weeds away.

Leeks and seed change

Leek is good for blending culture, as it first needs a lot of space at the end of the season. It thrives well between carrots, celery and broccoli.

This allows you to make the most of the space  garden and at the same time to prevent a number of diseases.

Pre-cultivation of leeks

You can germinate the leeks and then transplant them. You can also sow them directly on the open field in April, but they do not grow as large as they transplanted.

The best part is that you pre-cultivate the leeks inside or in the greenhouse. It gives them more months to grow. You can start pre-cultivating them as early as January and until April.

You sow the leeks in boxes with a good compost soil at the bottom. Lay a layer of soil over where you sow the seeds. Cover with ½ – 1 cm of soil. The soil should be suitably moist, and give a slight sprinkling after sowing. Leeks should have sufficient space, so thin to 2 cm distance between the plants. You can move the boxes outdoors in May for curing one to two weeks before transplanting.

Planting

Leeks do not hurt to stand in the boxes, so wait until planting until the danger of night frosts is over.

You should dig an approximately 10 cm deep groove into which you plant the leeks. The deep groove will make it easier for you to later hyperlink the leeks. The hip gives the leeks the white piece at the bottom for which they are so well known.

You can plant leeks at different distances. If you want them thick, they must stand at a great distance (50 cm between the rows and 15 cm distance in the row). You get thinner leeks about 10 cm between the plants.

You can choke the weeds by loosening the soil between the rows and gently chopping some of the loosened soil into the grooves. You can also keep the weeds away by covering the soil with co

mpost. This holds on to the moisture and fertilizers. You must continuously fertilize with compost

In November, it is a good idea to put a thick layer of leaves between the leeks so that they will not lack water in freezing weather as it can damage the leeks. It also ensures that you can pick up leeks in freezing weather.